International Center
Institute of Forest
. Powered by Institute of Forest SB RAS

April 15-16, 2003, Krasnoyarsk
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS



Organized by:

Siberian International Centre for Ecological Research of Boreal Forests,
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences
Siberian Branch



N. A. Abuschenko, D. A. Altyncev, S. M. Semenov
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia

This paper is concerned with the main techniques for computer-aided processing of satellite imagery from the NOAA satellite AVHRR instrument with the purpose of detecting forest fires. Input data used in these methods are represented by values of the physical quantities in the AVHRR channels: T3 - temperature in channel 3, T4 - temperature in channel 4, T3 - T4 - temperature difference in channel 3 and 4, and A1 and A2 - albedo in channel 1 and 2. The form of the functions separating a class of fires and other objects represents simple linear relations of form P > dp, where P is a current value of the attribute (T3, T4, etc.), and dp is the threshold value of a given attribute for a given class. The chief goal, when creating the classification algorithm, is to seek an optimum threshold value for each attribute.
On the basis of satellite observations of forest fires for the period 1998-2001 on the territory of Russia, an analysis was made of the effectiveness of classification attributes. The analysis suggested the conclusion about a low sensitivity of all available methods for identifying fire hot spots in conditions characteristic of most regions of Russia. Specifically for the conditions of Siberia and Far East, gaps of hot spots can make up from 30 to 90% depending on the time of a day and on the season. As a rule, this is characteristic of weak fires and small-size hot spots at the initial stage of development, which has a special influence on using satellite observation methods in efficient and flexible response schemes of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, Forest Aviation Protection, etc.
In view of the detected deficiencies, we offer an improved algorithm of data processing used to seek the separating functions on the basis of elements of the pattern recognition theory where the form of separating surfaces is described using potential functions. A comparative analysis of the performance of this algorithm using long-term observations showed an improvement of the fire hot spot detection effectiveness by a factor of 4-5 when compared with other techniques.




N. A. Abuschenko, D. A. Altyncev, S. A. Tashchilin, A. V. Tatarnikov
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia

Real-time monitoring results for the period of April-October 1998 were used to estimate the amount of emission of products of burning from forest fires on the territory of Russia within 125░ - 145░ E. Burnt-out areas as a result of forest fires were mapped using information from AVHRR channel 2 for the period of observation covering spring and summer of 1999. In doing this, information about the coordinates of fire pixels from real-time monitoring data was used to update the location of burnt-out areas in channel 2 images. The area deduced from these data totaled 6.8 million hectares.
Information about burnt-out areas was used to calculate the total amount of air emissions of such gas components as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). To calculate the total amount of emissions, the technique was used, which is exploited by a number of research centers, such as "Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center", Hampton, Virginia.
It is of interest to compare the data obtained in this study with the data on the yearly mean mass of CO2 released into the atmosphere as a result of burning of the biomass. In particular, the yearly mean total amount of CO2 that is released into the atmosphere is estimated at 4.29x1011 kg/year for ecosystems of boreal forests, and at 130x1011 kg/year for the entire globe. It is evident as a result of the forest fires observed, the emission of CO2 made up 70% of the yearly mean emission of carbon dioxide in the area of boreal forests, and over 2% of the yearly mean globe-wide amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.




N. A. Abuschenko, D. A. Altyncev, S. A. Tashchilin, A.V.Tatarnikov,
V. V. Koshelev, S. M. Semenov
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia

This paper is concerned with the system for satellite real-time monitoring of forest fires that has been created at the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS. The main data used by the Center are represented by multispectral information from the AVHRR radiometer installed on NOAA satellites. The satellite information processing system that had been set up at the ISTP permits ISTP researchers to solve a variety of problems related to assessment of the state of forest resources involving primarily monitorings of the fire and post-fire situation in the taiga area.
We present the main characteristics of the system of observations and of the procedures of processing and transmitting satellite information and results of thematic mapping to data users of a different level of decision-taking, within the federal and regional settings, in collaboration with the Central Base for Forest Aviation Protection, and with regional users. To improve the efficiency of handling final products of data processing, the data representation system based on the GIS technology "Forest fires of Irkutsk region" was created and practically applied. Results are represented in the "forestry-compartment" system adopted in forestry industry.




B. G. Ageev1, V. D. Nesvetailo2, Yu. N. Ponomarev 1, V. A. Sapozhnikova 1
1Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia;
2Scientific Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia

The analysis of the gas emitted from the wood of tree rings is suggested as an additional characteristics of tree rings used in the dendrochronoindication research. The wood of the rings of a scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) is taken as an object of the investigations. The wood samples are prepared by layer-by-layer careful separation of the dry wood in year rings. The analysis of gas samples extracted under vacuum from the wood was conducted with the help of the laser opto-acoustic method. The experimental setup and measurement procedure are presented in the report. It is found that the gas emitted from the tree samples consists mainly of CO2 and its quantity correlates with the corresponding ring width. The results of the experiments and prospects of the approach suggested for the use in climate-ecological control are discussed.
This work is supported by SB RAS (interdiscipline integration project No 67).




A. S. Alekseev, A. P. Soroka
Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical Academy, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Tree ring data, collected from 81 sample plots regular distributed over all region territory were used for Norway spruce growth trends analysis. The total number of sample trees was 315, tree ring series cover a period from 1735 to 1995, in the analysis 24 686 tree rings belonging to 6 age classes were used: 0-20 years old - 6300 tree rings, 21-40 - 6125, 41-60 - 5178, 61-80 - 3352, 81-100 - 1792, older than 100 - 1939. Tree ring data were grouped both in age and size classes for removing age bias from the analysis, comparison of rings width of trees which have appeared at the same age or at the trees with the same diameter but in different calendar years gives a possibility to remove completely age bias before analysis of growth trends. Generally we may conclude that Norway spruce trees during the last decades show increased growth for at least young and middle- aged generations.
Close relation between Norway spruce mean annual radial increment and temperature for vegetation season was revealed with regularity - younger trees have more reaction to warming. As in Leningrad region there is slow increase in temperature, both for vegetation season and for the whole year, additional reasons of increased growth, such as CO2 air fertilization and increase in vegetation period duration should be considered.




M. N. Alexeeva1, A. G. Dukarev2, Yu. M. Polichtchouk1, N. N. Pologova2
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia;
2Tomsk Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

Methodic problems of structure analysis are considered. Information technology of structure analysis of swamp-forest ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data with geographic information system is supposed. Landscape areas typology is proposed for solving problems of analysis of forest-swamp ecosystems landscape structure in Vasugan territory. Technology developed is applied for processing high dimension space images above territory with using results of ground observations. Relative areas of various landscape areas are determined. The results are represented on landscape maps.




D. A. Altyncev
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia

The effectiveness of the forest fire monitoring system (FFMS) using remotely sensed satellite data (RSD) depends heavily on parameters of the software used. Standard RSD processing packages have limited capabilities for setting up such a system; therefore, for this purpose, the Space Monitoring Center operated by the ISTP, Irkutsk, developed its own software package called FireProc. This software package provides a means of maintaining the entire chain of the necessary FFMS operations - from reception of information to the generation of output products. The system includes two basic modules: FireProcServer, and FireProcClient, as well as a variety of processing modules.
FireProcServer operates in a fully automatic mode to provide: control over satellite data reception; starting the processing modules to obtain intermediate and output products; generation of the necessary information for FFMS operators; analyzing the system's conditions and sounding the voice alarm in the event of errors. FireProcClient provides the user via the developed window interface with the following options: selecting the FireProcServer operating parameters and the processing modules; viewing and updating processing results; starting the processing modules in the non-real-time mode. The processing modules provide: automatic detection of forest fires; calculation of masks of cloudiness; construction of various composite maps; generation of the forest fire DB.
Output products are represented in raster, text and vector formats and are suited for real-time loading of the FFMS Internet-server. At the moment, FireProc is set up for processing AVHRR NOAA data and has shown good performance in the operational work of the ISTP SMC.




M. J. Apps
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, Canada

Northern forest ecosystems contain a large fraction of the global stocks of terrestrial organic carbon (IPCC 2001) and are intimately involved in the changing greenhouse gas balance of the atmosphere (Schimel et al 2001). Significant advances have been made in the understanding and quantification of the role of the circumpolar boreal forest and their management to the global carbon budget; the IBFRA conference in May 2000 was devoted to assessing this role [Apps et al., 2002, Stocks et al., 2002, Karjalainen et al., 2002, Shaw et al., 2002]. The science has advanced considerably since the 1993 review by Apps et al. and an update to that work is presently in press [Goodale et al., 2002]. Of particular note is the increased awareness that these systems are not in steady state or equilibrium and probably have never been [Apps, 1998]. Part of the explanation for the current disequilibrium is now recognized to be the influence of changing disturbance regimes associated with direct human activities (e.g., land-use change and land-use practices), natural variability (e.g., in weather patterns) and the indirect impacts of human activities (e.g., climate change).
In North America, all three of these factors are at work, and are largely responsible, it is believed, for the different contribution of different regions to the net carbon balance for the continent. Wild fires and insect attacks associated with natural variability or climate change dominate the changes in boreal Canada's carbon budget and changes in the natural disturbance regime in the 1970s resulted in these systems switching from a source to a sink [Kurz, Apps 1999]. In contrast, in the contiguous US it appears that changes in land-use practices over the past century have dominated the budget: abandonment of previously cleared forests has lead to a rapidly growing forest estate representing a net sink [Pacala et al., 2001]. In both these examples, it is the combination of present disturbance regime, the legacy of past disturbance regimes (reflected through the age-class distribution in both the vegetation and in the dead organic matter pools), and the present environmental conditions that determines the actual balance. While such broad-scale trends can be identified, at any given location the situation is far less clear, with both sources and sinks arising from the combined effects of present disturbance regimes, past disturbance regimes and present conditions.
Despite the progress made in the last decade, a number of challenges still face both the estimation of the present carbon budget for the region and for projecting expected changes over the coming decades. Combining forest inventory data with change detection and process knowledge is improving our ability to estimate present stocks and changes in stocks of above-ground woody vegetation but the projection of changes in these stocks remains dependent on imperfect models of vegetation response to changes in the environment. Although data is limited, it appears that the dynamics of the belowground components of living woody vegetation (roots) is adequately handled with existing approaches [Kurz et al., 1996; Cairns et al., 1997; Li et al., 2002]. The largest identifiable carbon pool - peat - has however both the largest uncertainties both in terms of its magnitude and its dynamics [Yu et al., 2002]. Interactions with changes in permafrost distribution are expected to significantly influence the peatland distribution (i.e., carbon stocks) and its function (i.e., carbon balance) as climate change accelerates; there is evidence that some of these changes have already occurred [Vitt et al., 1994, 2000]. This paper will review the present estimates of the carbon balance of the northern forest ecosystems of North America, review the scientific obstacles for improving these estimates, and discuss the challenges for projecting their contributions to the global carbon cycle in the future.




I. B. Archegova, S. V. Degteva, F. M. Khabibullina, E. G. Kuznetsova, G. G. Romanov
Institute of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Division, Komi Science Center,
Syktyvkar, Russia

Autogenic succession in the coniferous (spruce) forests of taiga zone damaged by cutting develops via substitution of conifers for small-leaved species, which is determined by abrupt change in conditions (light, moisture) at the clearing areas and by different life strategy of tree species. The results of combined (biota - soil) complex research in secondary small-leaved (birch, aspen and gray alder) stands are considered. Development of fast-growing deciduous species is accompanied by restructuring of biota and biological turnover. Considerable re-structuring of plant community is accompanied by increasing species diversity of vascular plants and microfungi. After changing composition of plant community, typical Podzolic soil transforms into low-Podzolic, i.e. into new soil sub-type.
Succession can terminate by formation of conditionally secondary (post-technogenic) spruce forests, as soon as conifers (spruce) promote to the first canopy layer in deciduous forests, depending on local conditions. Plant and soil diversityš decreases at this succession stage. The results of combined complex research of soil-plant system allow us to conclude that soil is a dynamic structure of biogeocoenosis. Dynamic direction is determined by plant cover composition, discrete spatial distribution being its typical feature. Spatial heterogeneity (mosaic outlook) of soil cover is connected with edificator role of trees.




O. Arino1, E. Volden1, D. Fernandez1, S. Plummer2
1IGBP-ESA; 2ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commits its Parties to limit net emissions of six major greenhouse gases. For CO2 the Protocol allows offsetting gas emission reduction by sequestration of carbon in carbon stocks. Furthermore, the Protocol defines certain Cooperative Implementation Mechanisms such as the Joint Implementation Mechanism and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), whereby countries can also implement carbon sequestration projects in another country. However, it requires reporting of changes in the carbon stock based on appropriate measurements and estimations. This results in a growing need for services providing land-cover mapping, forest monitoring and estimations of sequestrated carbon mass in order to plan, implement, assess and get these projects. ESA aims to develop a service under the Data User Programme tailored to the exploitation of Earth Observation data for quantifying the Kyoto Protocol. The objective of this project is to define and implement a nation-wide service for reporting for, or in trading resulting from, the Kyoto Protocol. It will examine provision of quantitative estimates of changes in the carbon stock as well as monitoring with respect to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (ARD) activities, or more generally land-use change activities.




S. A. Bartalev1, A. S. Belward1, D. V. Ershov2, A. S. Isaev2
1Institute for Environment and Sustainability, EC Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
2Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

The European Commission' Joint Research Center and Russian Academy of Sciences Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity have established a land cover data base to support forest and land management throughout Northern Eurasia. This new database has been created from 1 km resolution SPOT4 VEGETATION data from 1999 and includes an update to take into account all vegetation fires (forest and other land cover types) occurring in the year 2000. The database is made up of a series of advanced products derived from the VEGETATION data, including seasonal mosaics, snow duration, directional properties describing anisotropy, wetness index, phonological descriptors and a land cover map. The map legend contains 26 classes identified so as to meet the needs of science programmes, policy makers, environmental conventions, non-governmental organisations, development-aid projects and the national forest service. The first validation step compares the percentage forest cover from the map for each administrative region of the Russian Federation with the official forest cover statistics giving an R2 of 0.93. Whilst not statistically valid for all classes this gives us confidence in the map's quality. Full statistical validation is underway with the collaboration of Russian experts. This paper describes the map legend; the advanced products used for classification; map accuracy assessment process and presents the land cover map.




I. A. Bekh, D. A. Savchuk
Tomsk Branch of V. N.Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

The effect of local clear cutting was studied on discharge of the little rivers Bolshaya Utka and Malaya Utka (left tributaries of the Ket river of the Ob river basin) in the middle subzone of taiga in West Siberia. The cutting was started in 1966 and continued for 20 years. From 1966 to 1985 the total felled area was 31240 hectares (that was 36% of forest plane of the basin) including 6920 hectares in 1966-1970, 12270 hectares in 1971-1975, 7820 hectares in 1976-1980 and 4280 hectares in 1981-1985. Annual river discharge and discharge volume abrupt increased in 5-7 years after the clear cutting, became maximum in 1975 and then reduced little by little when the forests were regenerated. Stabilization of the river discharge and discharge volume was observed in 1991-1993 that was 6-8 years after the cutting had been finished. The mean and maximum discharge volume increased in 1981-1985. From 1966-1970 to 1976-1980 the river discharge increased from 68.5% up to 73.7% during the high water. The mean duration of the high water decreased from 98 to 94 days.




B. D. Belan, G. G. Matvienko, M. V. Panchenko
Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

Many-year monitoring of the aerosol number density that has been carried out at the Institute for Atmospheric Optics since 1983 revealed an 11-year cyclicity in its variations. It is well known that such a cyclicity is typical of the solar activity. Comparison of the long-term behaviour of the aerosol number concentration with time behaviour of Wolf numbers showed that they were similar. However, long-term behaviour of the aerosol concentration has a 2(3)-year phase lag in respect to that of Wolf numbers.
Analysis of possible reasons of that lag allows us to assume that this is a result of two processes. Foremost, even if an increase in solar activity dose not reflect in integrated flux of incoming solar radiation, but, nevertheless, it causes an increase of ultraviolet flux that can intensify vegetative processes. This leads to the increase of the concentration of the organic aerosol-forming substances emitted by vegetation. Secondly, an increase of UV-B radiation leads to the ozone concentration one that can play a double role. On the one hand, ozone actively interacts with organic gases and as a result the additional aerosol particles are formed. On the other hand, when its concentration exceeds some critical value, ozone starts to depress vegetation and, consequently, this can cause a decrease of the concentration of the aerosol-forming vapours.




B. D. Belan, D. V. Simonenkov, G. N. Tolmachev
Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

Institute for Atmospheric Optics has been carrying out regular (1 flight per month) airborne sounding over southern regions of West Siberia since June 1997. Airborne surveys are performed over forest zone in the 500 to 7000 m atmospheric layer. In our studies aerosol is sampled onto Petryanov filters (AFA-type), which is then analysed in the Laboratory of Analytic Chemistry of Tomsk State University.
Data obtained during this study showed that at all altitudes there was a seasonal behaviour of the concentration of some elements and ions. Amplitude of the seasonal behaviour is higher in the boundary layer. Concentration peaks at higher altitudes in the vertical distribution were observed during springtime that, most likely, can be a result of trans-boundary transport.




V. V. Belov, S .V. Afonin, G .G. Matvienko
Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

Among the tasks of remote sensing of the Earth's surface from space there is a very important problem of early detection and monitoring of forest fires. This problem is very urgent for boreal forests of Russia, since more than 1250 forest fires were detected only in the Tomsk Region (Western Siberia) in 1998-2001. Since 1998, the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS has operated the system for real-time space monitoring of forest fires (SMFF) on the territory of Tomsk Region with the use of AVHRR/NOAA data. The efficiency of this system in 1998-2001 is analyzed thoroughly in this report. Such an important problem as the efficiency of early (as compared with the results of forest protection services) detection of forest fires from space is considered. It is shown how the SMFF efficiency depends on the fire area and the time of space monitoring. The problem of rejection of sun glints on space images, which is urgent for Tomsk Region, is discussed.
An important task of SMFF is detection of forest fires at the early stage of their evolution, that is, space monitoring of fires, whose area is smaller than one pixel. To achieve the maximal accuracy in solution of this problem, atmospheric correction with the use of input data on the optical and geometric parameters of observation is needed. The data of numerical simulation and the results of atmospheric correction of satellite data are presented. They demonstrate that the allowance for the distorting effect of the atmosphere and the quality of input data play an important role in reconstruction of the characteristics of small-sized fires from the space data.




O. G. Bender, N. A. Vorobjeva, S. V. Zagirova
Tomsk Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

Morfo-anatomical parameters and ultrastructural organization of one-year-old needles of 10 - 15-year-old Siberian stone pine seedling growing at 2100 m and 1710 m altitude in Seminsky Pass, Mountain Altai was researched. It is shown, that the extreme conditions of high mountains altitude influence morphology and anatomy. The changes influence mesophyll, resin canals, epidermis. At high altitude needle length decreases, its thickness increases, mesophyll, vascular bundle and resin canal portion of the leaf cross-sectional area decrease and the epidermal thickness increases.
The study of mesophyll cell structure has shown that at 2100 m the cells are less vacuolate, include more portion volume of gyaloplasm. Portion volumes of the nucleus, cell walls and mesophyll air spaces do not differ significantly. The number of chloroplasts and mitochondria in the cells increases, and the sizes of the mitochondria and chroloplasts do not vary. At 2100 m the number of grana per chloroplast cross section is less, and the amount of plastoglobuli is more than that at 1710 m. In thylakoid system the large size grana are not numerous, the greater part is small and medium size grana.




A. V. Ben'kov, S. V. Tokmakov, V. Y. Kaplunov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

The Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) is main wood species of Eastern Siberia boreal forests, forming monodominant stands on permafrost soils. Under these specific conditions the forest ecosystems are characterized by the specific forest recovery process, low productivity and attenuated reduction potential. However, the larch forests on permafrost soils are stable ecosystems. With the aboveground phytomass structure the resistivity of trees to extremal environmental factors is determined by development of their rootlets. The root stores are well investigated for average latitudes, however they are scantily explored for North regions. The investigation was made on stationary research plots of Turuhanski research station (r. Niznaja Tunguska inferior streaming, western border of Evenkia). The relations of stem and root mass were studied in postfire overmature 380-year-old and mature 110-year-old larch forests.
As a result of the carried out research is the relations of stem and root phytomass of Gmelin larch growing in boreal forests of permafrost zone of Krasnoyarsk region were observed. The relation is 1:1,25 in mature and overmature larch forests. The relation of the phytomass of underground and stem parts is featured by a linear relation with high (0,99) quotient of determination. The character of relation practically does not depend on age of trees and stands and is determined by type of site conditions. The shares of a underground fractions phytomass of "stump" (a part of a tree is below the level of soil without roots), roots of various diameters (roots with diameters more 1 cm and physiologically fissile roots with a diameter less than 1 cm) and dead roots in mature and overmature larch forests are 37-48 %, 42-60 %, 1-7 % and 6-12 %, accordingly.




A. V. Benkova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Growth rate of the woody plants in stands depends on both physiological properties of the species and environmental conditions. Weather conditions of growth season do determine annual variability of biomass increment. In this work the difference in response of radial increment of dominant and suppressed fir trees (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) to weather changes has been revealed. The material of this study consists of 19 sample trees of fir (Abies sibirica) growing in the stand in boreal forest zone of Central Siberia near Vorogovo (61░ 01? N 89░ 46? E). The trees were divided into three groups by diameters: (1-10 cm), (11-20 cm) Ŕ (21-32 cm). The period from 1936 to1989 has been analyzed.
Our results show that radial growth increment of dominant fir trees relates positively with mean temperature and precipitation in growth season. At the same time, radial growth increment of suppressed trees negatively correlates with temperature (R=-0,30), but positively correlates with precipitation (R=0,30). This means that dominant fir trees having strong root system successfully grow at high temperature as well as substantial precipitation. Suppressed fir trees prefer higher precipitation rather than relatively high temperature. Obviously, transpiration of dominant trees appreciably increase at higher temperatures within growth season therefore suppressed trees having weak root system undergo water deficit. That can lead later to embolia of some tracheids. In conclusion, it seems that increment of dominant and suppressed Siberian fir trees in the irregular natural stands response differently to the effect of the temperature factor. The factor governing the radial growth of suppressed trees is soil moisture.




V. E. Benkova, A. A. Nekrasova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Among many mechanisms, which determine stability of northern forest ecosystems, superdominance of larch species is of the most importance. Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. and L. ˝ajanderi Mayr form mono-specific larch forests in a wide territory of cryolithic zone, including northern timberline. It is obvious that, during the evolution, these species have made a number of environmental and biological hereditable features which provide their dominant role in permafrost conditions and other extreme environments [Abaimov et al., 2000]. They are manifested in a wide range of adaptive mechanisms, reflected, in particular, in structure of secondary xylem.
Indeed, we have istablished that: - the stressed condition of water exchange with an environment and short growth season in Yakutya cause rather high radial growth rate of L. cajanderi, its higher sensitivity to weather conditions and participation of latewood tracheids in water transport in parallel with earlywood ones, thus the safety of conductive system is maintained by rather long earlywood tracheid forming. Sufficient mechanical strength of a rather high stem is attained by formation of long latewood tracheids as a compensation of its rather thin walls; the wood anatomical features of L. gmelinii (Taymir) are those, that the preference is given back to mechanical function of the xylem, despite of trees being thin and short. It can be supposed that windy climate in Taymir is the main reason in formation of such thick-walled latewood tracheids (so-called, "stunting effect of winds").




N. S. Berezhnaya
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia

Element composition in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle of trees suppressed by emissions was studied. Significant disturbances of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc and manganese were observed. Essential increase of the concentrations of nitrogen, calcium, sodium and the decrease of phosphorus, potassium, manganese and zinc were found in the needle of the heavily and moderately weakened tree stands. The following pollutants: fluorine, sulphur, aluminium, silicon, lead, cadmium, mercury, iron, copper showed accumulation levels that were clearly above the natural background levels. Low weakened trees showed minor changes of nutrients status compared with the background trees. Accordingly, accumulation of the pollutants in the needle of these trees was insignificant.




K. M. Bergen1, S. A. Bartalev2, V. Ippolitov3
1School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA; 2Global
Vegetation Monitoring Unit, Joint Research Center, Ispra, Italy; 3R&D Center ScanEx, Moscow, Russia

Russia's great geographic extent and the continual dynamics of its forests are the reasons remotely sensed data is used in studying forest and carbon dynamics over its territory. Remote sensing data is the most efficient means of assessing large forest areas, and multi-spectral and repeat imaging allows for effective scientific monitoring of forest dynamics. Beginning in the 1960's, a growing number of sensors have collected data useful for assessing the Russian boreal forest, the most significant including the Russian platforms Resurs-O and Resurs-F; U.S. platforms or sensors AVHRR, MODIS, Landsat and Corona; and other international platforms including SPOT (France), IRS (India), ERS (Europe), Radarsat (Canada) and JERS (Japan). In the ten years since the formation of the Russian Federation, international collaborations between both agencies and individual scientists have been growing. This paper documents the changing nature of remote sensing data access and organization for the various platforms and sensors; and reviews research results related to carbon, including land-cover change, fire, logging, and insect/pollution damage. It first reviews Russian, U.S. and European and other remote sensing platforms, data organization and research results, and concludes with sensor fusion: bringing international data and remote sensing programs together.




A. N. Berkutenko1, V. I. Chunaev2, A. N. Polezhaev1
1Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch,
Magadan, Russia; 2State Forest Service of the Committee of Natural Resources
of Magadan Region, Magadan, Russia

Magadan region is located in north-eastern part of the Russian Federation. Its area including adjacent islands is 46240.000 ha. On 01.01.2001 44694.000 ha or 96.7% of the whole area belongs to state forest fund. Severe climatic conditions, permafrost, short vegetation season, poor peat soils create unfavorable conditions for forest vegetation. This can explain not big diversity of trees and shrubs. Forest coverage in Magadan region makes up 33.6%, it varies in different administrative districts from 23% in North-Evensk district to 65% in Srednekansk district. The main forest forming trees occupy 41.2%, shrubs - 58.8%. Larch occupies 96.7 % of the area, poplar - 2.2%, chosenia - 1%, birch 0,1%, shrubby birches - 21.6%, other species of shrubs - 3%.
Due to depression in economy, remoteness of forests from transport ways, scattering of the forests on the area and severe climatic conditions only 5-8% of wood is cut while 80.000 m3 are planed. For the last 15 years due to not full utilization of forests areas of ripen and over ripen forests are considerably increased. It caused accumulation of flammable dead materials in the forests that leads to fire danger. In 1999 more than 8.000 ha of larch stands of different ages were burnt. These burnt areas now need continuous cutting. High fire danger appears in Magadan region every 5-7 years. There were 2567 fires for the last 15 years. Fires covered 335300 ha of forest and forest free lands.




P. Y. Bernier1, F. Raulier1, D. McKenney2
1Canadian Forest Service, Ste-Foy, Canada; 2 Canadian Forest Service, Sault-Ste-Marie, Canada

The measurement of net primary productivity (NPP) and of its component processes is performed at the level of a plot. Yet, spatial applications to the question of climatic influences on carbon sequestration in forests requires that NPP predictions be scaled up from the plot to large landscapes up to the full extent of Canada's boreal forest. A scaling up exercise of NPP from plot estimates to the Canadian landscape was performed in two steps. In the first step, a validated process-based model of canopy gas exchange (FineLEAP) was used to develop parameter values for a stand-level spatial model of NPP (StandLEAP). In a second step, StandLEAP was run on a 30x30m spatial resolution for 10 regions of 1000km2 to 2000km2 in size distributed across Canada. Results from these simulations were used to obtain parameter values for a simpler model (ForLEAP) to be applied on pixels of 1km2 or larger. This multi-scale approach permits the proper integration of field results into spatial models, as well as validation of estimates at the proper spatial scale.




P. Bienkovski, A. A. Titlyanova, S. V. Shibareva
Institute of Ecology, Poland Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland;
Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

The litters of coniferous forests were analyzed along the latitude gradient (60-68?N) in the series: south taiga, north taiga, forest-tundra. The elementary composition and the hearing value of litters change along the gradient. In ash-free organic matter the Đ content averaging from 48.5 to 54.0% is independent of the forest type and landscape zone. The N concentration varies from 0.61 to 1.53% and increases northward. The 0 content increases (from 32 to 41%) and H content decreases (from 6.9 to 6.5%) along the gradient also northward.
In order to characterize the oxidation degree of organic matter we used the index W=(2Qo - QiO/Qc, where Q is the number of gram-atoms of: 0 - oxygen, H - hydrogen, Đ - carbon. A positive W-value means the high degree of oxidation and it is typical of fulvic acids. The higher is the W - value, the more oxidized substances are. The W -values are negative for all litters. However the oxidation degree increases northward (from -0.63 to -0.31) and is maximal in the forest litters of the forest-tundra zone.
Graph-statistical test has shown that a transformation of litter organic matter is shifted towards fulvic acids and characterized by the Đ═š-groupes loss. This statement is supported by the data on heating values, which decrease northward from 3.8 to 3.0 kkal/g. Low heating values about 2.5 kkal/g) are also typical of fulvic acids and conditioned by H-loss from and 0- enrichment in the molecular structure. Thus, in the boreal forests under the litter transformation the processes of oxidation, loss of metil groups and accumulation of nitrogen substances are intensified along the latitude gradient to the north of the south.




Y. Sh. Blam, L. V. Mashkina, O. V. Mashkina
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch,
Novosibirsk, Russia

Timber industry is highly effective only when it includes a complex raw material treatment. It is considered that with a raising export duties for round timber, it is possible to stimulate the sector of in-depth timber treatment; in this case the bankruptcy of smaller woodsmen would be unavoidable. Experts also consider the need for creation of the single federal structure, dealing with the timber industry issues, which by itself without a thought through forest policy would not be able to increase the effectiveness of the timber complex. Often the higher effectiveness in timber export is achieved through the semi-legal schemes.
Timber industry complex of Siberia should be ready for the pressures from the Pacific Rim market and also, if there were no preventive marketing policy in place round wood would be still in a special demand. Large vertically integrated structures are capable of considering the specifics of the markets, for which they work and the specifics of the forest raw materials, which they have in disposal. The smaller and middle-size businesses use the "Soviet" style technologies in timber felling and in timber treatment. They use old and worn out equipment, with which it is impossible to manufacture high-quality products.




N. I. Blokhina
Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch,
Vladivostok, Russia

Change of vegetation in Russian Far East (RFE) during the Neogene was closely associated with global climatic changes. After climatic pessimum at the Paleogene-Neogene boundary a gradual warming trend began. In the climatic optimum during the late Early Miocene mesophytic types of rich polydominant both broad-leaved hardwood and conifer-hardwood forests grew over the RFE. These deciduous forests included a high percentage of thermophylious plants and several evergreen taxa.
A gradual cooling trend began since the late Middle Miocene. As a result subtropical evergreens and many of thermophylious plants have disappeared. Although Taxodiaceae and several broad-leaved hardwoods were still among the ediphicators. Because of fall of temperate the beech forests shifted down from the uplands into the valleys and low belts of slopes displaced there chestnut forests; and diversity of Conifers has reduced. In the North-East the upper mountain slopes in continental regions were covered at places by birch forests and near the ocean - by older forests; the highest altitudes were inhabited by mixed coniferous forests.
During the Late Miocene in the south of Far East beech forests along the valleys were displaced by alder-elm forests. The mixed conifer-hardwood forests with Carpinus, Quercus and abundant small-leaved hardwoods occupied lower slope belts, but upslopes were overgrown with dark-conifer forests including Larix and Betula. To the end of Late Miocene the presence of Abies, Picea and several Betulaceae has increased. Climatic change to cold was sharper in the North-East than in the south of Far East. Thus, Pseudolarix, Metasequoia, Taxodium, Glyptostrobus, Fagus, Ulmus as well as many thermophylious plants have disappeared in the North-East. As a result the north-eastern flora has become little similar to the southern one.
In the Early Pliocene woodlands were dominated by coniferous, birch and alder forests were still present in the North-East. However, to the Late Pliocene sparse grows of trees and non-wood territories have appeared. In the south of Far East vegetation has changed less than in the North-East and was much more thermophylious. Meanwhile, the mixed conifer-hardwood forests with abundant Pinaceae shifted down into the low altitudes, and savanna landscapes were, perhaps, common in the plains to the end of the Pliocene.




P. P. Bobrov1, T. A. Beljaeva2, A. P. Bobrov2
1Krasnoyarsk Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russia;
2Omsk State Pedagogical University, Omsk, Russia

In this paper, the experimental results obtained from the studies of soil water evaporation with the use of microwave radiometers are presented. Through mathematical modeling, it has been shown that there is quite a strong correlation between the rate of evaporation and soil moisture content dynamic in the upper layer of 6 cm in depth. The microwave radiometry at wavelengths from 18 to 30 cm was proposed as an effective approach to remote measuring of the total water content in the soil layer. In the experiment conducted, the radiometer at 18 cm wavelength was applied for estimating water content inside the layer of 1.5 m in depth. The highest level of correlation between the rate of evaporation and value of microwave emisivity is observed during the evening hours when the soil moisture gradients with depth are usually minimal. Some aspects of the radiometric methods, which can be used for monitoring the dynamic of water content in soil, are discussed in terms of their accuracy and domain of applicability.




V. N. Bocharnikov1, T. V. Chernenkova2
1Pacific Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch, Vladivostok, Russia; 1Centre for Ecological Problems and Productivity of Forests, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Moscow, Russia; 2A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Problems,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

This year the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002) is a candid assessment of the progress that has been made in implementation of global plan for sustainable development that was agreed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. The green belt of Russian boreal forest along Russian North, Siberia and Far East, and less Scandinavia and Canada may be regarded as one of the most important world areas supporting indigenous peoples with their traditional livelihood some last several centuries. Within this framework we would like to highlight some important elements for a programme of development on inventory ideology and monitoring methods of forest biological diversity.
It takes a number of research and practical steps on the basis of the GIS-approach to address urgently the conservation and sustainable use of forest within framework ongoing projects: recognition of indigenous knowledge and integration of traditional forest-related knowledge in sustainable forest management; development and promotion of appropriate methods and technologies application for sustainable use and management of forest biological resources; and carring out a review of available information on the status and trends of, and major threats to, forest biological biodiversity, and identification of significant gaps in that information; identification of theoretical basis in forestry and forest ecology as well appropriate innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how test of practical application of the GIS-based EA in pilot projects.




A. I. Borodulin1, A. S. Safatov1, B. D. Belan2, M. V. Panchenko2
1State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Koltsovo, Novosibirk Region
2Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russia

From 1998 up to now State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector" and Institute of Atmospheric Optic carry out systematic study of the biogenic component of atmospheric aerosol at different altitudes in the south of West Siberia. Atmospheric samples are collected from onboard the AN-30 "Optic-E" aircraft-laboratory. The flight path is situated over the Karakan forest located on the right coast of the river Ob'. Sampling is carried out at the heights of 7000, 5500, 4000, 3000, 2000, 1500, 1000 and 500 m under clear weather conditions in the daytime. Air samples for determination of atmospheric protein concentration are collected on the AFA-HA filters, and samples for determination of concentration of microorganisms are collected to impingers. The volume of air sampled at each altitude is about 2 m3. Impingers are filled with special liquid based on physiological solution, and the volume rate of sampling is 50l/min at the flight duration at each altitude of 15 min. The data of observations show that the concentrations of protein molecules and living microorganisms have their own well pronounced annual behavior.




A. I. Bouzikin, I. S. Dashkovskaya, V. G. Soukhovolsky
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

The problem of forest stand stability is one of fundamental problems of forest ecology. The stability of boreal coniferous forest ecosystem can be connected with different vital strategy types. The stability of forest stands can be supported through various reaction types on external influence and various growth strategies of one-breed trees. Five basic growth strategy types were discharged. It is shown that in a steady stand there are definite interrelations between the number of trees with different types of strategy. For the analysis of stand stability factors the parameters describing a degree of synchronisation of a radial increment of all trees in a forest stand in separate concrete year are entered. The connection of a level of tree growth synchronisation and the weather factors is investigated. It is shown that the degree of tree increment synchronisation in forest stand can change in dependence of climatic parameters.
The study is supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Grant No 01-04-48176).


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